Kulaly - Treasure Island of Mangistau history
If we often call the Mangistau figuratively as Treasure Peninsula, the Kulaly - this is truly an island of treasure of region history. Today there is a wasteland. Is that a meteorologist, but coastguard occasionally to check in to places break the silence. And once this island was not just habitable, and was the center of fishing Tupkaragan. It was a village where there was a school, a church home.... Rogue Stenka Razin and he and his gang hid from the Russian autocracy on this island. Caretaker sealskin industry in Astrakhan management of fish and seal hunting Basil (Vartan) hastat for more than five decades, beginning in 1844, often visited the island Kulaly. The results of their stay on a remote island in the form of a published essay "Kulaly Island" in the journal "Bulletin of fishery trade." Here is a quote from this essay: "The length of the island - 35 miles, and the width - about 60 fathoms. Vegetation on the island is scanty. For many miles there is a solid coquina. On the shores of the island on the east side Kulaly find corals. From sea or the west side of excitement thrown out of the sea on the coast of amber. It is truly Treasure Island. For many years he lived on the island hastat Kulaly, favored by seals. In those years, this bleak, desolate island Kulaly was built treasury wooden house for the winter hut caretaker, where he lived with his hastat hunting dog Canan. In addition to the house caretaker was a few huts, which housed the industrialists who come to fight seal winter. Spring came fishermen, producing only fish sturgeon. From an essay Hastatov learned that the island was once the chapel of St. Nicholas, built by fisherman D.N.Borisov, narrowly escaped during a storm. Several years at the chapel wintered priest who kept Borisov. When he was staying Hastatova chapel was already destroyed. In his essay hastat wrote that on the island Kulaly, three miles from the village, there is a place that fishermen call Galiotskiy Lake. Here's why: there once was located lake, which connects to the sea strait. Once in a heavy storm north-west wind in the lake brought galiot (bombardier ship), which eventually was filled with coquina. Time from time in this place, adventurers or simply meteorologists find various marine accessories: oak digging nails, fastening vessel, ancient winepress, iron core... In 1990, during a joint US-Soviet expedition to the Caspian Sea on the island Kulaly were found the remains of an old wooden boat. Findings of the expedition enabled scientists to the Center for Integrated Undersea Research, I.Divakov and A.Okorokov, suppose the ship of XVIII century. Built and owned by one of the intelligence or military expeditions since Peter the Great. Among the finds made during the excavations of the remains of the ship, emphasizes vintage ammunition: cannon, cast iron core, artillery grenades and grapeshot shells (so-called "knitted buckshot"), which caused great interest to students as a rarity. Results of examination of ammunition in the museums of the Moscow Kremlin confirms the conclusion that o.Kulaly found the remains of a Russian military or military transport ship, which dates back to the XVIII century, more likely its first half. For accurate findings and conclusions that the same was a ship discovered in the o.Kulaly, it was necessary to find information about the killed there courts. To determine the type of vessel and found it belongs to this or that historical events were held historical and bibliographic and archival research. It was found that. island Kulaly expedition visited Prince A.Bekovicha-Cherkassky (1714-1717), lieutenant M.Travina expedition (1717-1718), F.Soymonova (1726), Lieutenant A.Kozhina and Lieutenant-Commander V.Urusova described in 1718 Mr. eastern shores of the Caspian Sea. In 1745, the island Kulaly passed D.Bezobrazov expedition, in 1764 - 1765. - Expedition I.Tokmacheva and I.Panina and A.V.Mollera (1786). In data of English trading company (about 1742) is described in detail Kulaly. The information about the accident and the loss of ships near Kulaly Island during campaigns of A.Bekovich-Cherkassky and expedition of F.Soymonov was preserved. In 1716, on the instructions of Peter I in the expedition Bekovich-lieutenant arrived in Astrakhan A.Kozhin. Documents written by them shed light on the actual composition of the fleet Bekovich. In a report Kozhina F.M.Apraksinu, sent to St. Petersburg in 1718, found documentary evidence of the exact losses of ships. A.I.Kozhin in 1716 commanded the fleet of the expedition, at least from the beginning of her training before the arrival of ships to Tupkaraganu. His report concludes Kojin following: "Only marine vessels lost 1 snow, 1 bregantin 4 Shkut, 15 small Shkut, 31 beads. And there were 3 snows, 2 brigantines, 6 Shkut, 1 small Shkut 8 beads. Of the add dimensions to the snows eating sea accord. And the rest of my nebytnost all damaged by the sea and on the add are ordered to fix ... ". Thus, of the 74 ships available to the Bekovich in 1716 to 1718 as part of the Caspian flotilla there were a total of 20 vessels and 52 vessels were considered dead and two small Shkut that "was buried." From the list of losses implies that a significant part of the losses are beads - a total of 31, ie more than half of the lost ships and shhuty shhuty and small, with 19; and finally, the snows and the brigantine. Thus, most likely the remains of at Kulaly Island may belong to one of 21 vessels lost in 1716-1717 during expeditions A.Bekovich-Cherkassky. The latter is confirmed by the nature of its cargo; since it is known that it was during the said expeditions were building forts on the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea - the fortress of St.Tupkaragan Peter peninsula, as well as in the Gulf of Aleksandrbay and Krasnovodskaya Spit. Type of vessel found, likely crossmasted (Shkut). Of the lost vessel Bekovich 21 European construction snows corresponds to 5%, the brigantine - 5%, and scouts the (Shkut) as a whole 90%. Documents show that the vessel remains on about. Kulaly - it remains one of the military or military transport ships that were part of the flotilla A.Bekovich-Cherkassky, and, most likely, the scouts (Shkut). In order not to leave the reader curious and patient in disbelief and confusion from the traces of the drama in the Caspian Sea three centuries ago, we recall that we stayed only on the unit, although unusual and controversial episodes in the history of the Russian fleet in the Caspian Sea - is often forgotten theater of his actions. Creator and Guardian of the Russian fleet Peter would not have been truly great if he could not from the mistakes and failures to extract the experience brought him ultimately benefit and win. One of the most important in that the Petrine era and, of course, an outstanding achievement expeditions launched Bekovich on the Caspian Sea and its shores is the outline map of the Caspian Sea, which Peter, being in Paris in 1717, presented by French scientists at the Academy of Sciences and admiring the French presented in its parliament Peter the diploma of the Paris Academy of Sciences. Russian Tsar could be proud of their deeds loyalists, he boldly sent to feats. Almost at the same time, the Khan of Khiva sends a gift Emir of Bukhara as severed head Bekovich.
/From the book N. Zaderetckaya «Tupkaragan - cradle Mangistau», translated by V. Gonchar/