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Bautino

Nikolaevskiy Stanitsa (Bautino Village)

                                 First in habitants

                 Bautino village is 3km away from the Fort-Shevchenko district centre. Officials say the village is registered at Fort-Shevchenko city. Sailors it say is attached to the city. Pilots say Bautino is a helpmate village to the Fort-Shevchenko city.

                This village is special in every way beginning with its appearance. A visiting card of this village is bleached mud huts with rosy carved shutters. This mud huts and elms which you can see where delight the eye and bring unforgettable fillings of old times. Warm sea waves plashing down the acclivous shores of Tupkaragan, and keeping great secrets of people who lived on this shore in different times and ages.

               Bautino village was found in 1849 as Nikolaevskiy Stanitsa. We came to know an interesting document thanked for a member of the T. Shevchenko museum-complex N. Sh. Surin. The document is a historieal sketch written by Nikolay Zverev in 1907. Let’s look at some notes:

               “The Nikolaevskiy Stanitsa in situated on the sand spit. It shows up with a harrow line along the shore to the Caspian Sea Tupkaragan bay, which is a very comfortable place for a harbour. Down the ages Peri-Caspian owners were the Kazakh in the north of Mangyshlak peninsula, and the Turkmen in the south part of it. After this land was conquered by Russians Novopetrovskiy fortress was built 3 verst from the Tupkaragan bay for the retention of power. Hunters were called from Orenburg province to develop fishing on the east coast of the Caspian Sea. 5 families responded with pleasure and went to the east coast of the Caspian Sea. They settled on the sand spit of the Tupkaragan bay. It was the first settlement and called Nikolaevskiy Stanitsa. Near that place you car final Armenian suburb, and Armenian people started the trade. Now let’s look at the document of Obruchaev who was a military governor: “Russian settlement on Mangyshlak has double meaning. Firstly, for spreading commercial intercourse with Khiva and Bukhara and for barter trade with Ordyns (Kazakh and Turkmen people) wandering on the east coast of the Caspian Sea. Secondly, for fishery and seal trade development”. In 1848 Russian merchants good were free from taxes for trade development on Mangyshlak, and all Russian people were allowed to make barter trade for free.

               From Zherev’s sketch we get to know that in the beginning of 1849 15 families came from Orenburg and Sarotov regions. They were Dedurin, Perpeluk, Sevrutkin, Elistatov, Yazikov, Chermyshnikov, Dankov, Savchenko, Krivokhozhen, Lomakin, 2 Razamanov and 2 Belunun families. Russian government gave log-crib building for every family, which were made by soldiers serving in the Fort-Alexandrovskiy fortress. They also gave a rigged ship with sails, Anchors, 70 rubles and fishing tackles for every family. They gave free ration to new settlers. Hoverer, Fort-Alexandrovskiy commandant was giving out nails, cramps, pitch, firewood, salt and sacks of flour. To make it clear, the government helped people to have everything they needed. In 1858 12 volunteer families came to the Nikolaevskiy Stanitsa. In 1859 two more volunteer families came: Dubskiy and Posadskiy. They had to build houses and farms, buy fishing tackles themselves. They extracted clay and rocks in mountains behind the bay and transported it on trolleys. They built dugouts with broken shell rocks, smeared them with clay, and greased roof with clay too. Those roofs protected from rain badly. Floors were sand and greased with clay….

                  Soon fishers realized that fishing would be the only mean of subsistence. Government helped people with free fishing in all the Caspian Sea region till 1869, taxes and military exemption till 1904, free salt extraction from all the lakes (150 poods for a family). Some families, who came without the government support could feed themselves and had to leave for more lived-in and fertile regions. According the guidance petition 40 families were resettled to Curban region near Elbrus, and added to the Cossack estate. That region was fertile, but there was fever and people were dying. Emaciated inhabitants had to protect their houses from wild mountaineers’ forays. In 6 years people moved back to the Nikolaevskiy Stanitsa. By that time there were people not only from Orenburg region, but also from other regions of Russia… With the help of Russian government and with God’s help, migrants built first 15 stone houses.

                 Nikolaevskiy new settlers were earning money by fishing. Mangyshlak fish was valued less than Astrakhan fish. It was impossible to grow vegetables and fruit, because the soil was salty and people hadn’t enough fresh water. Many wooden houses were burnt in 70-s in the XIX century during Peasants’ rebellion. Some settler were taken as prisoners and sold as slaves to Khiva. Firm people stayed alive and continued the generation.

                 In 1888 a strong storm took away many boats and fishing equipment. The government had to help people and gave out bread and cereals from Fort-Alexandrovskiy (Fort-Shevchenko) shop, and prolonged benefits till 1904. According to Kuropatkin governor-general, the manufacturer Zakhar Dubrovskiy built an ice-house for local trade development, for improving fish quality and increasing its price. Dubrovskiy and Trusov were the best in this business. Trusov got these skills and secrete recipes working with Dubrovskiy for several years. Then Dubrovskiy made a low credit for fishers. Prosperity of people increased greatly since then.

                 Transportation was bad - only 4 horses for the village. That’s why it was difficult for Nikolaevskiy people to communicate with others from different part of the peninsula. They were living in their small world on the Tupkaragan coast and were happy, getting married, giving birth to children, and blessing them within the village.

 

   First in habitants

    Bautino village is 3 km away from the Fort-Shevchenko district centre. Officials say the village is registered at Fort-Shevchenko city. Sailors it say is attached to the city. Pilots say Bautino is a helpmate village to the Fort-Shevchenko city.

   This village is special in every way beginning with its appearance. A visiting card of this village is bleached mud huts with rosy carved shutters. This mud huts and elms which you can see where delight the eye and bring unforgettable fillings of old times. Warm sea waves plashing down the acclivous shores of Tupkaragan, and keeping great secrets of people who lived on this shore in different times and ages.

   Bautino village was found in 1849 as Nikolaevskiy Stanitsa. We came to know an interesting document thanked for a member of the T. Shevchenko museum-complex N. Sh. Surin. The document is a historieal sketch written by Nikolay Zverev in 1907. Let’s look at some notes:

 “The Nikolaevskiy Stanitsa in situated on the sand spit. It shows up with a harrow line along the shore to the Caspian Sea Tupkaragan bay, which is a very comfortable place for a harbour. Down the ages Peri-Caspian owners were the Kazakh in the north of Mangyshlak peninsula, and the Turkmen in the south part of it. After this land was conquered by Russians Novopetrovskiy fortress was built 3 verst from the Tupkaragan bay for the retention of power. Hunters were called from Orenburg province to develop fishing on the east coast of the Caspian Sea. 5 families responded with pleasure and went to the east coast of the Caspian Sea. They settled on the sand spit of the Tupkaragan bay. It was the first settlement and called Nikolaevskiy Stanitsa. Near that place you car final Armenian suburb, and Armenian people started the trade. Now let’s look at the document of Obruchaev who was a military governor: “Russian settlement on Mangyshlak has double meaning. Firstly, for spreading commercial intercourse with Khiva and Bukhara and for barter trade with Ordyns (Kazakh and Turkmen people) wandering on the east coast of the Caspian Sea. Secondly, for fishery and seal trade development”. In 1848 Russian merchants good were free from taxes for trade development on Mangyshlak, and all Russian people were allowed to make barter trade for free.

  From Zherev’s sketch we get to know that in the beginning of 1849 15 families came from Orenburg and Sarotov regions. They were Dedurin, Perpeluk, Sevrutkin, Elistatov, Yazikov, Chermyshnikov, Dankov, Savchenko, Krivokhozhen, Lomakin, 2 Razamanov and 2 Belunun families. Russian government gave log-crib building for every family, which were made by soldiers serving in the Fort-Alexandrovskiy fortress. They also gave a rigged ship with sails, Anchors, 70 rubles and fishing tackles for every family. They gave free ration to new settlers. Hoverer, Fort-Alexandrovskiy commandant was giving out nails, cramps, pitch, firewood, salt and sacks of flour. To make it clear, the government helped people to have everything they needed. In 1858 12 volunteer families came to the Nikolaevskiy Stanitsa. In 1859 two more volunteer families came: Dubskiy and Posadskiy. They had to build houses and farms, buy fishing tackles themselves. They extracted clay and rocks in mountains behind the bay and transported it on trolleys. They built dugouts with broken shell rocks, smeared them with clay, and greased roof with clay too. Those roofs protected from rain badly. Floors were sand and greased with clay….

    Soon fishers realized that fishing would be the only mean of subsistence. Government helped people with free fishing in all the Caspian Sea region till 1869, taxes and military exemption till 1904, free salt extraction from all the lakes (150 poods for a family). Some families, who came without the government support could feed themselves and had to leave for more lived-in and fertile regions. According the guidance petition 40 families were resettled to Curban region near Elbrus, and added to the Cossack estate. That region was fertile, but there was fever and people were dying. Emaciated inhabitants had to protect their houses from wild mountaineers’ forays. In 6 years people moved back to the Nikolaevskiy Stanitsa. By that time there were people not only from Orenburg region, but also from other regions of Russia… With the help of Russian government and with God’s help, migrants built first 15 stone houses.

Nikolaevskiy new settlers were earning money by fishing. Mangyshlak fish was valued less than Astrakhan fish. It was impossible to grow vegetables and fruit, because the soil was salty and people hadn’t enough fresh water. Many wooden houses were burnt in 70-s in the XIX century during Peasants’ rebellion. Some settler were taken as prisoners and sold as slaves to Khiva. Firm people stayed alive and continued the generation.

  In 1888 a strong storm took away many boats and fishing equipment. The government had to help people and gave out bread and cereals from Fort-Alexandrovskiy (Fort-Shevchenko) shop, and prolonged benefits till 1904. According to Kuropatkin governor-general, the manufacturer Zakhar Dubrovskiy built an ice-house for local trade development, for improving fish quality and increasing its price. Dubrovskiy and Trusov were the best in this business. Trusov got these skills and secrete recipes working with Dubrovskiy for several years. Then Dubrovskiy made a low credit for fishers. Prosperity of people increased greatly since then.

 Transportation was bad - only 4 horses for the village. That’s why it was difficult for Nikolaevskiy people to communicate with others from different part of the peninsula. They were living in their small world on the Tupkaragan coast and were happy, getting married, giving birth to children, and blessing them within the village.

/From the book N. Zaderetckaya «Tupkaragan - cradle Mangistau», translated by V. Gonchar/

 

The village is called after Alexey Bautin

               On the 2 of July, 1921 the Nikolaevskiy Stanitsa was renamed to Bautino after the first soviet department chairman Alexey Egorovich Bautin.

                 In the centre of Bautino village was built a concrete monument with granite brass with such words: “For the first chairman of the deputy village soviet of Nikolaevskiy Stanitsa. For Alexey Egorovich who was killed by White Guardists in 1919”.

                 Travelers don’t just pass by this monument. They stop and ask local people about Bautin. Any local citizen says at once: “Bautin was a fighter for soviet authority on the Tupkaragan peninsula”. An old-timer can tell you the details about the life of this soviet times man.

                  Alexey Egorovich Bautin was born in a poor Tambov family. His parents settled in Nikolaevskiy Stanitsa after the revolution in 1905. During 10 years Alexey was working hard and thinking why poor people were working hard from early in the morning till late in the evening, but don’t get enough money. Why the rich urge and getting richer. During the 1 World War he was fond of revolution activities. In 1917 the soviet of soldiers, workers, peasant and Muslim deputies was found. Late in 1918 Alexey Egorovich Bautin was elected the chairman of Nikolaevskiy Stanitsa Soviet, and also a Red company commander. Bautin was taking active participation in soviet authority establishment on the Tupkaragan peninsula. He organized the first workmen’s cooperative association in the fish trade base, was helping to organize canteens for poor people and buy cows for the poor etc. His work was appreciated by communists and in 1919 he was taken in Bolsheviks’ party.

                  One man told that time checks heroes, but true heroes it checks harder. In May 1919 English squadron, White Russian troop with their leader Zheleznov general and military troop with their leader Dannikov colonel broke into the Tupkaragan bay. Counter-revolution protégés inflicted reprisals on soviet activists. Soviet authorities saw unequal forces and had to leave the peninsula. Alexey Bautin dedicated to leave for Astrakhan with his commanders. They say that the Tupkaragan fishmonger Zakhar Dubrovskiy took part in the rescue. But the wind dropped and the sail sagged. The white Russian who organized the chase caught the fugitives. Zheleznov general was interrogating Bautin himself, trying to put Bautin’s fair name in the pillory. He was mocking at the surname Bautin publicly: “Baut means a steel rod for horseshoeing. Not all” the iron is suitable for that”. Alexey Egorovich was shot with his brother-soldier, I. Sapozhnikov, M. Borisov, F. Khom, A. and V. Zlobins.

               White Russian’s happiness was not long. The Red flotilla with “Karl Libkneht” torpedo boat at the head attacked the white Russian unexpectedly, and took 70 officers and over a 1000 white Russian as prisoners. Only a few whites were able to save themselves from punishment.

               Soviet authority was established on April 6, 1920. Alexey Bauntin’s daughter remembers: “When my father was in prison, I was little and was allowed to see him for a few times. Once, my father put a note under my inner sole for his comrades. Red army commander Andrey Uvko was also a prisoner. I remember a meeting near Dubrovskiy house where the judged Bolsheviks. Dubskiy said he could have mercy on Bautin, because he had 4 children, but someone from the crowd was against mercy. Bautin was shot. In the morning 10 years Alexey was worning father’s elder sister Praskovia brought a parcel. She saw a soldier wearing father’s suit, and we understood he was dead. They were shot wear the Sea shore. We were not allowed to see, the grave before a night came. Sapozhnikov led us to the grave of our father and Uvko. It was terrible. They were not buried well. After whites were driven out father wa reburied in T. Shevchenko park. Mother died soon, because of suffering. We were 4 children left. Alexandra became a worker. I went to a boarding school. Arkadiy was adopted by Romanovs. Then we all were sent to a boarding school in Uralsk city. In 1926 I was back to the village named after my father, and started to work at the ambulance station. The Balashovs gave refuge to me. I married Dmitriy Ivanovich Balashov’s son. So I became a part of Balashov family”.

               Documents on June 2, 1921 and the 2 record of Adaev party meeting (the chairman T. Molchanov, the secretary T. Komissarenko) tell there was an idea to rename Fort-Alexandrovskiy city into the Fort-Urickiy, and Nikolaevskiy village into the Bauntino Stanitsa in the agenda. The decision was to rebury Bautin’s and Uvko’s and other people remains in the local park and to build a monument on the common grave”.

   Revolution heroes were reburied in the local park with honors. The street, school and Stanitsa were named after Bautin. In 1957 an obelisk was built on the common grave at the local park. In 1958 Party and soviet bodies built a house and presented it to Bautin’s daughter Maria Alexeevna Bautina.

   One more letter clears Bautin’s name it was written by Maria Mikhalovna Bogdanova to Bautin’s daughter Maria Alexeevna: “I am obliged to Alexey Egorovich with my life. In 1918 I with my husband were working in the Fort-Alexandrovskiy fortress and I was a Bolshevik agitator. During the white Russians attak your father helped me and my husband to escape the execution. But he couldn’t escape it himself”.

   Bautin’s life and work was not long, but it was bright. There are many notes and facts which left a track in nation’s life in old archives and books. The first secretary of a communist party D. A. Kunaev said: “Ages will pass, but names of the fighters for Soviet authority will be remembered forever. We honor those who gave their lives for freedom, who were brave revolutionist.

/From the book N. Zaderetckaya «Tupkaragan - cradle Mangistau», translated by V. Gonchar/

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